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Multi-Rater 360º Feedback
Sample Multi-Rater 360 Feedback Report

DISC Self Assessments
Sample DISC Workplace Report

Emotional Intelligence Self Assessments

Bar On EQ-i Emotional Intelligence
Sample Bar On EQ-i Emotional Intelligence Report for Business
Sample Bar On EQ-i Emotional Intelligence Report for Leadership
Sample Bar On EQ-i Emotional Intelligence Report for Individual

Kolbe Self Assessments
Kolbe A Results for Keith Miller

StrengthsFinder Self Assessments
StrengthsFinder 2.0 Sample Assessment

Personality Self Assessments
Personality Assessment Report for Keith Miller

Career Self Assessments
iStart Strong Career Inventory Sample Assessment
Strong Interest Career Inventory Sample Assessment

Neethling Brain Inventory (NBI)
Neethling Brain Inventory (NBI) PDF

Multi-rater Feedback 360° Performance Feedback in Action

Multi-rater 360°


Self-awareness is defined as knowing self-behaviors as others see them. Most individuals have an incomplete view of how they are perceived by their peers, subordinates, and superiors which creates miscommunication that corrupts the synergy and climate of the working environment. The main goal of the multi-rater 360° is for the improvement of overall organizational performance which is derived through skills, competencies, and behaviors of its associates. The 360° tool collects behavioral perceptions from trusted associates usually from different ranks within an organization and measures components of leadership effectiveness. The extracted action-based feedback is leveraged to implement goal setting to improve leadership abilities by identifying weaknesses and illuminating strengths in regards to executive decision making, strategic planning, communications, and corporate management to name a few. The multiple benefits of a multi-rater 360° improve the organizational climate by creating leadership awareness as well as providing necessary feedback about behavioral processes that negatively impact company output.

These tools are integral for providing immediate change to adverse behaviors and positively influence the work atmosphere by directly improving organizational communications. The multi-rater 360° tool’s anonymous structure provides a platform for honest feedback that is extremely valuable which targets important areas of concern and improving these areas exponentially provides a return on investment for any organization. Implementing a multi-rater 360° is a flexible process that provides a clear view of overall behavioral self-performance which includes an array of associate perspectives as well as the self-perspective. The multi-rater 360° is used from top to bottom in most organizations and not everyone receives glowing reviews of behavioral performance which causes dissonance for many affected associates.

The common denominations of results are organized as follows: Top twenty percent (20%), bottom twenty percent (20%), and middle sixty percent (60%). The top twenty percent of participants are satisfied with the results and excited to find out that they have been perceived by others as they recognize themselves. The bottom twenty percent are confused and upset about receiving terrible results – They feel horrible for taking part in the assessment and are at odds with the results. These emotional feelings direct participants to search for alternative reasons or excuses to explain the unwanted outcome. The middle sixty percent of participants have received a mixture of positive and negative feedback, and are unsure about how to direct their energy to improve their work perception. This is a valuable resource for the organization to leverage because increasing the leader behaviors in the middle sixty percent of the organization can create an overwhelming momentum that will turn an average organization into the number one (#1) or number two (#2) organization in their respective fields.

Multi-rater 360° Executive Coaching

Several different research studies have shown that professional executive coaching has improved the outcomes associated with multi-rater 360° tools and the control groups without professional coaching received no improvement (Luthans & Peterson, 2003; Seifert, Yukl, & McDonald, 2003; Smither, London, Flautt, Vargas, & Kucine, 2003). Executive coaching provides direction and clarity around feedback and removes the false underlying beliefs that are created when receiving unfavorable results. Executive coaching provides a sounding board and a professionally skilled support system for the participant to express their true feelings associated with the 360° feedback in real-time. This coaching experience improves the ability to understand the positive and negative feedback because the emotional connection is addressed and removed which empowers potential leaders to make considerable change for correction. Research has shown that the alternative to this solution is doing nothing about the results which leaves an unresolved gap for the participant. The multi-rater 360° tool is the catalyst that starts the sequence of change, but action-based coaching that focuses on strategic goals supported by a coaching relationship are the foundation for positive developmental change. The executive coach co-creates action plans to implement change that addresses the feedback and provides a platform for the leader to address their development over time. The coaching platform creates a safe confidential zone for the client to identify hidden elements associated with the feedback and to understand the dynamics pertaining to the work environment.

Multi-rater 360° tools are most successful when used for developmental purposes rather than performance evaluation because the latter introduces incentives that create confounding variables that produce null and void feedback that is free of non-basis perception. This learning opportunity that exponentially supports the participant and the organization will then be transformed into a strategic moment to target perceived competition and create a toxic working environment. Alternatively, multi-rater 360° tools can be applied to selection and development of high-potential leadership candidates because these tools are ideal at identifying important leadership competencies that have been shown to make dramatic differences between success and failure at the highest levels. Furthermore, multi-rater 360° tools are strategically effective for implementing positive team-building.


Clear communication concerning the desired implementation and expectations associated with a Multi-rater 360° tool are imperative to the success of the operation. Uncertainty about the motivation behind this assessment can lead to false positives and negatives which ultimately confounds the results. A presentation concerning the success goals and the impact will greatly aid the organizational buy-in which creates an atmosphere of trust. This will lead to greater participation and satisfaction associated with the experiential experience. Team members become increasingly aware of their responsibility to provide honest actionable feedback to help support their organization’s overall success as well as the individual they are responsible for rating. A well planned Multi-rater 360° experience improves group efficacy and collaboration that leads to greater synergy.


Receiving feedback that is unexpected or does not align with firmly held beliefs about how pointed behaviors and actions are perceived causes cognitive dissonance. The feelings and emotions that are stirred up during this process causes mental confusion for some participants and can be handled poorly during the wrong situations. Leaders know how to handle adversity and understand how to control their reactions. Confident Leaders use their intellect to take everything into consideration and collect their thoughts concerning the feedback process. Leaders then respond accordingly through their positive actions to improve the circumstances that caused the unfavorable feedback – leaders lead by example. The multi-rater 360° tool is a measure of leadership competencies, and most importantly, accurately measures the competency of self-awareness. The multi-rater 360° tool’s accuracy involves multiple layers of perspectives which are honest by way of anonymity. The gift of the Multi-rater 360° tool is that of actionable goals for personal and professional development in relation to the related work environment.

Feedback should never be given in malice, but rather, in a supportive fashion that benefits overall development. The ideal feedback would support the individual competencies in relation to company strategy, vision, and mission. A proper Multi-rater 360° debrief should include professional coaching that aids in the development of the individual in regards to expanding their role in the organization through additional training and job rotations. Participating in a Multi-rater 360° exercise is a privilege and identifies the commitment that the organization has to progressive development. These tools are designed to improve leadership competencies and provide individual data for improving the unlimited potential that truly exist in everyone – The goal is to discover strengths, face reality concerning behaviors, and exploit the learning experience to improve personally and professionally.

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Big Five Personality Factors,
What they mean, & how they are measured

NEO-PI – IPIP – DISC Assessments

Origins of the Big Five Factors of Personality

Prior to the 1980s, research had a difficult time understanding the relationship between personality and performance – This occurred because there a universal scale for measuring personality did not exist. Researchers have since developed a hierarchy of personality traits that are categorized into a taxonomy called the Five Factor Model (FFM) (Barrick & Mount, 2001).

The FFM model has been found to be stable and robust across different frameworks and models (Digman, 1990; Hough, et. al, 2001). In other words, these five traits have been shown through experimental research to be cross-culturally universal. The FFM hierarchal personality model has been developed through extensive research by psychologists such as Guilford, Cattell, Fiske, Tupes, Christal, Digman, Goldberg, Costa, and McCrae (Barrick & Mount, 1991). Furthermore, experimental research has demonstrated that the five-factor model is relatively free of biases, and is valid cross-culturally (Hough, et. al., 2001).

The Five Factor Model Defined

The Five Factor Model commonly referred to as the “Big Five” is a structured framework for analyzing the intricacies of personality. The “Big Five” personality dimensions are represented and analyzed in the following criteria: Extroversion vs. Introversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability vs. Neuroticism, and Intellect (openness to experience). The following section will define these universal traits and provide examples of how they are expressed.

Factor I, Extraversion, is identified by traits such as sociability, assertiveness, dominance, talkativeness, and gregariousness. Extraversion represents the ability to connect with others from all walks of life and to freely express oneself in the company of strangers. It represents a comfort level with being in the company of others as opposed to being more comfortable when being alone as would be the case for someone who is more introverted. Factor II, Agreeableness, is associated with traits such as courtesy, flexibility, trust, cooperativeness, forgiveness, and tolerance. Agreeableness represents the likability factor and how well someone can conform appropriately to the social complexities of the situation.

Factor III, Conscientiousness, is associated with the traits of being careful, thorough, responsible, organized, achievement oriented, and persevering. Someone who is conscientious enjoys structures that provide strategies that get tasks accomplished with precision and on time. Factor IV, Emotional Stability vs. Neuroticism, concerns emotional control when encountering situations that cause discomfort or extreme concern. Neuroticism is associated with traits such as being anxious, insecure, depressed, worried, and angry. Emotional control over the extremes is paramount to understanding this personality dimension. Factor V, Intellect, is associated with the traits of curiosity, intelligence, originality, imaginativeness, and artistically sensitive. Intellect is prominent in individuals who are highly open to experience (Barrick & Mount, 1991; McCrae & Costa, 1985; Nguyen et. al, 2005).

Personality constructs from the Five Factor Model (FFM) have been shown to predict performance independently of cognitive ability tests (CAT) (Barrick & Mount, 1991; McCrae & Costa, 1987). Additionally, they have been shown to be free of subgroup differences when predicting performance (Hough et. al, 2001). The big five factor of Conscientiousness has been shown to be consistent in predicting performance for all occupations (Barrick & Mount, 1991). Personality is mutually exclusive from cognitive ability (Intelligence) which makes this construct of ability ideal for predicting performance. Furthermore, overall performance is predicted with greater accuracy when utilizing both cognitive ability and personality assessments.

Barrick & Mount’s (1991) , monumental research included 162 samples with total participants of 23,994 that represented professional occupational groups (5%) which contained Engineers, Architects, Attorneys, Accountants, Teachers, Doctors, and Ministers. Other occupational groups were Police Officers (13%); Managers (41%) (Foremen – Executives); Sales (17%); and skilled/semi-skilled (24%) (clerical, nurses, aides, farmers, flight attendants, medical assistants, orderlies, airline baggage handlers, assemblers, telephone operators, grocery clerks, truck drivers, and production workers). This meta-analytic research demonstrated that the personality factor of conscientiousness is a valid predictor of job performance.

Conscientiousness has been extensively researched in the area of personnel performance and the other established predictors of performance are Intellect (openness to experience) and Extroversion. Barrick & Mount (1991) found Intellect (openness to experience), and extraversion to be valid predictors of training proficiency which suggests that individuals who are open to experience and extroverted benefit more from training programs than those individuals that are not extroverted and not open to experience. These findings provide organizational knowledge that relates to efficiency in developing training programs and who to target for development.

NEO-PI and IPIP Personality Assessments

The Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness-Personality Inventory (NEO-PI), is the most widely used personality assessment that measures the dimensions of the five-factor model (FFM). The NEO-PI contains six scales that assess 30 different traits by using 240 questionnaire items with a 5-point Likert scale answering format (McCrae & Costa, 1987). The International Personality Item Pool (IPIP), which is a “Big Five” personality inventory, was developed by Dr. Goldberg, and is published online at ( (Goldberg, et. al, 2006).

The IPIP personality measure is comparable to the NEO-PI because they both measure the “Big Five” model of Extroversion vs. Introversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism vs. Emotional Stability, Conscientiousness, and Intellect (openness to experience). The IPIP scale has been used in over one hundred published studies on personality that are cited at The IPIP measures of the “Big Five” personality inventory include 204 labels for 269 IPIP scales that cover the facet levels of personality as well as the “Big Five”. Each scale provides the correlation with other well know measures of personality such as the NEO-PI (Goldberg,

DISC Personality Assessment

The DISC assessment is composed of four distinct personality types which are: Dominance, Influence, Steadiness, and Conscientiousness. The dimension of Dominance is concerned with overcoming obstacles and accomplishing results – The dimension of Influence concerns the ability to communicate and influence others – The dimension of Steadiness concerns the ability to assess the situation, cooperate successfully, and calmly develop solutions to carry out the task – The dimension of Conscientiousness focuses on executing conscientious behaviors within existing situations.

These personality types are flexible within this model and blend to form a personality description that enables strategic placement within organizations. The focus of the DISC is to examine the situational behavior of individuals to improve productivity, teamwork, and communication. The application of the DISC personality assessment is most prevalent in business settings and it is used to develop effective teams, managers, and leaders. Additionally, the DISC is used to enhance communication, reduce conflict, and improve overall productivity. Furthermore, the DISC tool can be applied to the coaching relationship and used for organizational placement and promotion.

Personality Assessment Summary

The NEO-PI, IPIP, and the DISC assessments all measure personality which is predictive of job performance. The ability to detect high performers, and to develop individual talents that benefit group dynamics, are the two most valuable components of these assessments. Appropriate use of these highly researched and accurate assessments of targeted personality traits does result in understanding the motivation, application abilities, and strengths possessed by individuals. Personality is constant and difficult to change. However, creating awareness by implementing these personality measures will alert the participant to certain weaknesses that will allow them to focus their energy to improve on their unconscious behaviors.

The nature-nurture debate has shown these types of abilities such as personality to be 50/50. Fifty percent are passed on through genetics and fifty percent are learned. We can learn to adapt our behaviors accordingly and we can unlearn poor behaviors with proper intent and action. Although, personality is stable over time – personality can be adapted through self-awareness, motivation to change, and a strong support system such as a professional Coach.


Barrick, M.R., Mount, M.K. (1991). The big five personality dimensions and job performance: a meta-analysis. Personnel Psychology, 44, 1-26.
Digman, J.M. (1990). Personality structure: emergence of the five-factor model. Annual Review of Psychology, 41, 417-440.
Goldberg, L.R., Johnson, J.A., Eber, H.W., Hogan, R., Ashton, M.C., Cloninger, C.R., Gough, H.G. (2005). The international personality item pool and the future of public-domain personality measures. Journal of Research in Personality, 40, 84-96.
Goldberg, L.R. (1999). A broad-bandwidth, public-domain, personality inventory measuring the lower-level facets of several five-factor models. Personality Psychology in Europe, 7, 7-28.
Hough, L.M., Oswald, F.L., Ployhart, R.E. (2001). Determinants, detection and amelioration of adverse impact in personnel selection procedures: issues, evidence and lessons learned. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 9, 152-194.
McCrae, R.R., Costa, P.T. Jr., (1987). Validation of the five-factor model of personality across instruments and observers. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 52, 81-90.
Nguyen, N.T., Allen, L.C., Fraccastoro, K. (2005). Personality predicts academic performance: exploring the moderating role of gender. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 27, 105-116.
International Personality Item Pool: A Scientific Collaboratory for the Development of Advanced Measures of Personality Traits and Other Individual Differences ( Internet Web Site.

Explanation of the Fourteen Emotional & Social
Competencies of the ESCI-U

Background Information

The Emotional and Social Competency Inventory University Edition (ESCI-U) was developed by Richard Boyatzis, Daniel Goleman, and the Hay Group. This assessment measures 12 competencies: (emotional self-awareness, empathy, organizational awareness, achievement orientation, adaptability, emotional self-control, positive outlook, conflict management, coach and mentor, influence, inspirational leadership, and teamwork) separated into four categories: (self-awareness, social awareness, self-management, and relationship management). All of these competencies work in conjunction and have a synergistic effect on overall effectiveness. Additionally, this assessment measures cognitive competencies as defined by systems thinking and pattern recognition. These two competencies have been shown to significantly predict effectiveness in leadership.

Furthermore, the ESCI-U measures the emotional and social competencies in order to form a baseline understanding of where we are in each respective domain in order to implement training practices to improve our abilities in each category to improve effectiveness in work, life, leadership, and in education. The way to improve on these social and emotional dimensions is to become self-aware of where we are situated in relation to these concepts and to aspire to improve our competencies to become more effective at life’s processes.

Emotional Self-Awreness & Achievement Orientation

Emotional self-awareness is the ability to understand one’s own emotional reactions to stimuli and the stemming effects that are caused within our environment. Additionally, emotional self-awareness is about knowing how we operate emotionally, and our capacity to express and control emotions. When someone is high in emotional self-awareness they are conscious of their emotions, why they happen, who the emotions are affecting, and are open to feedback. Achievement orientation involves a need to display excellence and to continually express a strong desire to surpass expectations. An individual with high achievement orientation takes calculated risks that can be measured, thrives on creating acting in a situation, and gets to the heart of the situation in order to take action.


Adaptability is the ability to be flexible throughout changing situations and individuals who display this competency are willing to adjust the focus of their beliefs for increased situational benefits. An individual high in adaptability is able to multi-task, handle change easily, and adapt to new situations as they occur. Emotional self-control is displayed when one can control their behaviors when emotions are high, can deal with highly stressful situations, and remain positive in difficult circumstances. Positive outlook is about having a positive perception of the world at large and understanding that there are opportunities for growth and development. An individual high in this competency envisions a dynamic future that is enlightening and embraces conflict as a sign of improvement.

Empathy & Organizational Awareness

Empathy is about having compassion for other people and understanding another’s point of view. An individual high on empathy can read non-verbal communications, respect others wholly, actively listen, and understand other’s reasoning for taking actions that are against their own beliefs. Organizational awareness is concerned with understanding the hierarchal power dynamic in organizations which include being able to identify decision makers and influencers. One high in organizational awareness displays a keen ability to identify power relationships, has a strong sense of the cultural climate, and concentrates on doing appropriate activities to receive desired rewards.

Conflict Management – Coach & Mentor – Influence

Conflict management is the ability to handle difficult situations and difficult individuals in face to face situations. Individuals high in this competency express an ability to expose disagreements, communicate effectively with all parties involved, focus on a goal everyone can agree upon, and reduces unnecessary tension. The coach and mentor competency involves an individual who can expertly develop others over the long term and spends their time guiding others towards achieving excellence. An individual who scores high in this category knows how to offer appropriate feedback for another’s development, has a presence that encourages others to break down mental barriers, and truly cares about people. Influence involves having a positive impact on others by using persuasion to gain attention. An individual high in this competency gains buy-in for ideas, understands how to speak to other’s self-interest, and knows how to engage important people in discussion.

Inspirational Leadership – Teamwork

Inspirational leadership involves having a desire and appropriate behaviors to lead people by bringing groups together for a shared common purpose. An individual high in this competency is an expert at engaging others in projects, formulating a vision that evokes emotional reactions, and has an ability to motivate people to be the best they can be. The teamwork competency is concerned with the ability to work well with others by sharing responsibility, rewards, and accomplishments. An individual high in this competency thrives in team relationships, invigorates team identity, expresses friendliness, and is respectful of others contributions.

Cognitive Competencies

The cognitive competency of systems thinking involves an ability to identify causes and effects of complex situations. An individual with a high systems thinking competency can explain these complex situations efficiently clear, visualize the causes and effects associated with the situation, and is able to identify the interactional effects in relation to the situational outcomes. The other cognitive competency of pattern recognition is about recognizing and explaining randomness into patterns. An individual high in this competency understands similarities across different patterns and can translate the information into understandable stories for others to interpret the meanings of complex phenomenon.


Boyatzis, R., Goleman, D. (2007) Emotional and social competency inventory university edition workbook. Hay Group Transforming Learning
Cherniss, C., Maltbia, T. (2011) Emotional intelligence workshop.Teachers College, Columbia University


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